### Graceful Labeling and Skolem Graceful Labeling on the U-star Graph and It’s Application in Cryptography

#### Abstract

*Graceful Labeling on graph G=(V, E) is an injective function f from the set of the vertex V(G) to the set of numbers {0,1,2,...,|E(G)|} which induces bijective function f from the set of edges E(G) to the set of numbers {1,2,...,|E(G)|} such that for each edge uv e E(G) with u,v e V(G) in effect f(uv)=|f(u)-f(v)|. Meanwhile, the Skolem graceful labeling is a modification of the Graceful labeling. The graph has graceful labeling or Skolem graceful labeling is called graceful graph or Skolem graceful labeling graph. The graph used in this study is the U-star graph, which is denoted by U(Sn). The purpose of this research is to determine the pattern of the graceful labeling and Skolem graceful labeling on graph U(Sn) apply it to cryptography polyalphabetic cipher. The research begins by forming a graph U(Sn) and they are labeling it with graceful labeling and Skolem graceful labeling. Then, the labeling results are applied to the cryptographic polyalphabetic cipher. In this study, it is found that the U(Sn) graph is a graceful graph and a Skolem graceful graph, and the labeling pattern is obtained. Besides, the labeling results on a graph it U(Sn) can be used to form a table U(Sn) polyalphabetic cipher. The table is used as a key to encrypt messages.*

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34312/jjom.v3i2.9992

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