Morphology and growth pattern of Nike fish (amphidromous goby larvae) in Gorontalo Waters, Indonesia

Nuralim Pasisingi, Abdul Hafidz Olii, Sitty Ainsyah Habibie


Nike is a terminology used by Gorontalo local community to name schooling of minuscule amphidromous goby fish that has a limited appearance in Gorontalo waters. Understanding the biological performance of Nike fish is vital for implementing management and conservation strategy. This study aims to analyze daily recruitment and to determine growth patterns of Nike fish population in nature. Sampling was conducted in the Gorontalo waters during March, April, and May 2018 using a fish net with a mesh size of 0.5 inches. The duration of the appearance of Nike schooling in waters varies every month. The number of fish samples collected each month in this study ranged from 150 to 300 individuals. This study reveals that body color diversity and morphology of Nike fish strongly alleged to depend on where and how long they appear in the waters. Based on the daily recruitment pattern, Nike fish population distributed in Gorontalo waters is predicted to consist of individuals from multi-generation with an average length range of 1.848–2.805 cm. During the sampling time, a positive allometric growth pattern indicated by the population.


Allometric; Amphidromous, Goby, Growth Pattern, Lenght-Weight Relationship

Full Text:



Augspurger, J. M., & Closs, G. P. (2019). Early life‐history adaptation influences conservation approaches for facultatively amphidromous fish. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 29(9), 1403–1408.

Bell, K. N., Brown, J. A., & Pepin, P. (1995). Seasonal, inverse cycling of length-and age-at-recruitment in the diadromous gobies Sicydium punctatum and Sicydium antillarum in Dominica, West Indies. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52(7), 1535–1545.

Chalant, A., Jézéquel, C., Keith, P., & Hugueny, B. (2019). The global geography of fish diadromy modes. Global Ecology and Biogeography 00, 1–11.

Diamond, K. M. (2019). Functional Morphology and Environmental Impacts on Migration-Relevant Performance Measures in Amphidromous Goby Fishes (Doctoral Dissertation, Clemson University, South Carolina). Retrieved from

Downie, A. T., Illing, B., Faria, A. M., & Rummer. (2020). Swimming performance of marine fish larvae: review of a universal trait under ecological and environmental pressure. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 30, 93–108.

Franklin, P., & Gee, E. (2019). Living in an amphidromous world: perspectives on the management of fish passage from an island nation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 29(9), 1424–1437.

Jarvis, M. G., Harland, H. A., Warburton, M. L., & Closs, G. P. (2018). The spawning and early life-history of a New Zealand endemic amphidromous eleotrid, bluegill bully (Gobiomorphus hubbsi). New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 52(1), 55–68.

Kadim, M. K., Pasisingi, N., & Arsyad, S. (2019). Horizontal distribution of chlorophyll-a in the Gorontalo Bay. Nature Environment & Pollution Technology, 18(4), 1381–1385.

Kaemingk, M. A., Swearer, S. E., Bury, S. J., & Shima, J. S. (2019). Landscape edges shape dispersal and population structure of a migratory fish. Oecologia, 190(3), 579–588.

Keith, P., Allen, G., Lord, C., & Hadiaty, R. K. (2011). Five new species of Sicyopterus (Gobioidei: Sicydiinae) from Papua New Guinea and Papua. Cybium, 35(4), 299–318.

Keith, P., Hadiaty, R. K., & Lord, C. (2012). A new species of Belobranchus (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Eleotridae) from Indonesia. Cybium, 36(3), 479–484.

Keith, P., Hadiaty, R. K., Hubert, N., Busson, F., Lord, C., (2014). Three new species of Lentipes from Indonesia (Teleostei: Gobiidae). Cybium, 38(2), 133–146.

Keith, P., Lord, C., Busson, F., Sauri, S., Hubert, N., & Hadiaty, R. K. (2015). A new species of Sicyopterus (Gobiidae) from Indonesia. Cybium, 39(4), 243‒248.

Moody, K. N., Wren, J. L., Kobayashi, D. R., Blum, M. J., Ptacek, M. B., Blob, R. W., & Childress, M. J. (2019). Evidence of local adaptation in a waterfall-climbing Hawaiian goby fish derived from coupled biophysical modeling of larval dispersal and post-settlement selection. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19(1), 88.

Murase, I., & Iguchi, K. I. (2019). Facultative amphidromy involving estuaries in an annual amphidromous fish from a subtropical marginal range. Journal of Fish Biology, 95(6), 1391–1398.

Olii, A. H., Sahami, F. M., Hamzah, S. N., & Pasisingi, N. (2017). Preliminary findings on distribution pattern of larvae of nike fish (Awaous sp.) in the estuary of Bone River, Gorontalo Province, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux, 10, 1110–1118.

Olii, A. H., Sahami, F. M., Hamzah, S. N., & Pasisingi, N. (2019). Molecular approach to identify gobioid fishes, "Nike" and "Hundala" (local name), from Gorontalo Waters, Indonesia. Online Journal of Biological Sciences, 19(1), 51–56.

Pasisingi, N., & Abdullah, S. (2018). Pattern of nike fish (Gobiidae) occurrence in the Gorontalo Bay, Indonesia [Indonesian]. Depik, Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan, Pesisir dan Perikanan, 7(2), 111–118.

Riedel, R., Caskey, L. M., & Hurlbert, S. H. (2007). Length-weight relations and growth rates of dominant fishes of the Salton Sea: implications for predation by fish-eating birds. Lake and Reservoir Management, 23(5), 528–535.

Sahami, F. M., Rene, K. C., Olii, A. H., & Pratasik, S. B. (2019). What species make up the Nike fish assemblages at the macrotidal estuary in Gorontalo Bay, Indonesia?. F1000Research, 8(1654), 1–9.

Souza, A. T., Ilarri, M. I., Timóteo, S., & Marques. (2018). Assessing the effects of temperature and salinity oscillations on a key mesopredator fish from European coastal systems. Science of the Total Environment, 640–641, 1332–1345.

Teichert, N., Richarson, M., Valade, P., & Gaudin, P. (2012). Reproduction and marine life history of an endemic amphidromous gobiid fish of Reunion Island. Aquatic Biology, 15(3), 225–236.

Wagiyo, K., Priatna, A., & Herlisman, H. (2019). Abundance, composition and distribution of fish larvae in the Seram Sea, Maluku Sea and Tomini Bay (WPP 715) [Indonesian]. BAWAL Widya Riset Perikanan Tangkap, 11(1), 1–17.

DOI: ';

Creative Commons License
Tomini Journal of Aquatic Science is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.